Tambourine – Percussion Musical Instrument

What is a Tambourine?

The Tambourine is a Frame Drum, circular in shape and with a head made of calfskin or plastic. The head is nailed to a wooden frame in the form of a hoop.

Look and Feel – 15 – 25 cm / 6 – 19 in diameter 5 cm / 2 in depth

The Tambourine has small metal (cymbals) discs attached to its hoop.

Used extensively in parts of Europe as well in India, the Tambourine also features in orchestral folk music.

To play the Tambourine

The Tambourine or Daffli, as it is called in India is played by striking or slapping its head with the flat palm of the hand or with the fist. To simply produce a rattling sound, the Tambourine can be shaken creating an extremely likeable accompaniment sound.

Tambourine Performance


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Tabla, Indian Percussion Instrument

Tabla, Indian Percussion Instrument

The tabla occupies a very important position among Indian Musical Instruments. The sounds and beats of the Tabla have the unique ability of transforming any kind of music and giving it a completely new dimension. An ideal accompaniment, the Tabla is undoubtedly an inseparable part of North India Classical Music (Hindustani Music) including the religious and popular music forms.

What is Tabla?

An Indian Percussion instrument, the Tabla refers to a pair of asymmetrical hand drums which are small in size (contrasting sizes) and tuned to different timbres.  The Tabla is always played by an individual. Here is a list of some of the well known Tabla players and musicians

Description of the Tabla

The left hand drum is known as the “BAYA” and is made of brass or copper and creates a deep sound.

Diameter – 27cm / 11 cm Long – 30cm / 15 cm

The right hand drum is called the “DAYA” is made of wood and creates a higher sound as compared to the baya.

Diameter – 18cm / 7cm Long – 30cm / 15 cm

Features & Looks of the Tabla, Percussion Instrument

The most recognizable features of the pair of drums include –

  • Both the Daya and the Baya have a leather strip that laces the drumhead to the drum and runs from the top to the bottom of the drums in a ‘W’ formation.
  • Out of the 2 drums, the right hand drum or the Daya has short wooden blocks fitted under the leather strips. These may be loosened or adjusted to tune the sound of the drum.
  • The head of the both the drums are constructed in such a way so that they are capable of producing a wide range of differing sonorities.

Playing The Tabla

To play the Tabla, all parts of the hand are used. The fingers and palm of the hand are used in different & varying ways to produce a range of sounds. The most common tabla bol are dha, dhin and ta, tin.

Tuning The Tabla

The tabla is tuned based on the tonic note (sa) of the raag / scale or melody which is either being sung (vocal) or played by the instrumentalist. The wooden blocks in the daya are hammered to loosen or adjust the tuning of the drum.

Rhythms are organized into cycles of beats in Indian Music and can be seen with this example of Tintal – 16 beats divided into pattern of 4+4+4+4 –

Beat counts     

2     3     4     5     6     7     8     9     10     11     12     13     14     15     16
dha     dhin     dhin     dha     dha     dhin     dhin     dha     dha     tin     tin     ta     ta     dhin     dhin     dha

Tabla Performance


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Conga & Bongo, Percussion Instrument

Conga & Bongo – Percussion Instrument

The Conga Conga, also called the Tumba Drum, is one of the largest hand drums used largely in Latin America.

Features and Look of the Conga The Conga is a percussion instrument which is recognizable thanks to its barrel shaped upright body made primarily of hard wood or fiberglass and bound together with metal strips. Played using the hands or with a beater, the Conga is usually single headed or can have two heads.

Dimension – Diameter: 25 – 30 cm/10-15; Length: 50-60 cm/20-24

Playing the Conga The Conga can be played by an individual or by 2 – 3 people, using a beater or with hands. To create different sounds, Conga players use all parts of the hand including fingertips and the palm of hands which fall flatly on the Conga head. The sides of the drum can also be beaten to create sound. Different tones are produced by slapping on the different parts of the Conga including the middle, side and rim of the drum.

Tuning the Conga Though the Conga is not tuned, its skin can be tightened in order to create a high sound when played. The Bongo and the Timbales are  2 instruments which are used as accompaniments with the Conga in Latin American music.

The Bongo Bongos are a pair of single headed drums usually small in size and joined together. Unequal in size, the smaller drum is called the male or minor drum while the larger drum is called the female or major drum.

To play the Bongo The Bongo can be either placed on a stand or between the knees and is usually tuned to a higher pitch. Bongo creates rich music which is extremely rhythmic and enjoyable.

Bongos are widely used and are an important component of various music styles such as the Salsa, Mambo, Cha Cha and Rumba.

Diameter: 15 cm / 6 cm, Length: 20 cm / 8 cm; 20cm / 8 cm, 30 cm / 15 cm


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